Thursday, June 4, 2020

The Managed Health Company - Free Essay Example

As a company that majors in the provision of health care services, managed care has achieved the ability to expand its reach throughout all the corners of the United States. This has happened during the ten years prior to the current date. It started with a sole purpose of ensuring that the costs of the services being offered were cheap and affordable, fast and easy access in order to boost quick response by the team involved in service delivery as well as ensuring that the quality of the services being produced was high. As early as the 1800s, one of the systems involving manage care service delivery was launched. It was established in order to carry out its activities as services of prepaid health, which were to be administered by the employers for those who were migrating into the United States so as to search for job opportunities. HMO Legislation Those who were at the front of managed care that was already modernized, group practice that was mainly prepaid were reduced almost to nothing by the development of service fee that was meant to carter for medicine under an insurance that was already indemnified at the period of the post World War two and it faced great stunting by organized medicine responses which were at an early time. HMO legislation in the time of the 1970s were greatly altered by the reforms upon health care early years, which was during the time of the 1960s. This generated a boost in the growth of HMO enrollment thereby forcing an acceleration as well in the period of the 1980s. Health reform whose standard gauge is the market has prompted the rise of the delivery of health care to the manage care version that is of the modern day. Within such a system, health care is administered by a small quantity of providers who are contracted at rates of reimbursement which are greatly minimized. Managed Care Organization Patients get directed to such contracted providers, and the decision generating of these providers on the other hand get influenced by the managed care organization (MCOs) using incentives that are financial and quality programs of assurance. An overall philosophy of care is shared by the MCOs. This is that the company is able to reward appropriateness as well as necessity. Over the period of ten years that prior the current date, a great variety of buildings and structures under the ownership of managed care, strategies as well as techniques have expansion and development. A certain level of threat is felt by producers as well as patients during the time of social movement in American medicine. During the falling that took place in 1995, as it is also described in an article in Health Care Financial Management, two PHOs were greatly challenged by the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice. This was so as to carry out negotiations upon rates of the hospital members. They however did not share any risk of finance within the members. A brief description is given upon the statements that provide a shield to the health care. This is of two forms of integration which are among providers of health care that would lead to the fact that efficiencies are generated.? A total of all the forms that lay out integration operate in large part by establishing dependencies among within that carry out production benefits through mutual cooperation in between the boundaries of the providers. In conclusion, the main general significance of risk sharing financial within the financial sector, of course, is that it leads to the creation of an incentive for all the current providers to be fully attentive in order to efficiently provide the services, and it also brings encouragement to the creation of techniques that could help promote efficiency among providers who are elsewhere but still within the network. The statements of Health Care bring provision of some examples of arrangements that share risks and therefore there is no limitation in the kinds of arrangements anyone chooses to put into consideration. Works cited Douglas. Mains. Physician Incentives: Managed Care and Ethics. Internet Scientific Publications. York. 2003. Print. Douglas A. Mains.Managed Care. 2013. Print.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Counseling Specializations And Multidisciplinary Teams Essay

Counseling Specializations and Multidisciplinary Teams The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the counseling profession and its ability to work on cases in multidisciplinary teams. A variety of scholarly journal articles were taken into account in order to gain insight into the field of counseling and some of its specializations. For this paper, the focus was, aside from general counseling, on marriage and family therapy as well as addiction counseling. The key philosophies of the field, wellness, prevention and resilience, were discussed alongside of the main concepts important to marriage and family as well as addiction counseling. In regard to a specific hypothetical case, it was illustrated how marriage and family counselors may work in collaboration with addiction counselors in order to provide beneficial services to clients. Finally, assumptions were made concerning efficient collaboration between professionals within a team and human services agencies. Impact of a Wellness Model There are two specific empirically supported wellness models which influence the field of counseling and counselors’ work with clients: the so-called Wheel of Wellness as well as the model of the Indivisible Self (as cited in Myers Sweeney, 2008, p. 483). The goal of a counselor’s work with clients is to help the latter achieve a state of optimal wellbeing which consists of an equilibrium between physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health (Myers Sweeney,Show MoreRelatedCounseling Specializations And Multidisciplinary Teams1843 Words   |  8 Pages Counseling Specializations and Multidisciplinary Teams It is my belief, a school counselor must have the personality characteristics of an effective counselor and have a personal approach to treatment. Personal characteristics of an effective counselor are as follows: making life oriented choices, being authentic, sincere, and honest with students at all times. Other characteristics consist of appreciating the influence of different cultures and being passionate with students as they are counseledRead MoreCounseling Specializations Multidisciplinary Teams1104 Words   |  5 PagesThe main concept of this study is to effectively display Multidisciplinary Teams and the role they have on the field of Mental Health. MDTs have been proven to be an effective format for collaboration of Mental Health Clinicians to exhibit the core concepts of wellness, resilience, and prevention for the overall health of the patient. Evidence has been shown to prove that when MDTs are being practiced in the field of study, Mental Health Clinicians exhibit en thusiasm of the skills and ideas beingRead MoreHistory of Counseling Essay1131 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ History of Counseling Lead to Multidisciplinary Teams COUN5004 Survey of Research in Human Development for Professional Counselors History of Counseling Leading to Multidisciplinary Teams Counseling is a relatively new profession which has transformed over time from treating mental illnesses to providing educational guidance to counseling with a variety of specializations. Pistole summarizes by stating that counselors, now, aim to, â€Å"contribute to the vitality and vigor andRead MoreA Brief Historical Perspective Of Key Philosophies1874 Words   |  8 Pagesbeginnings of the counseling profession can be traced back as far as the Greeks with the emergence of psychology. Psychology did not develop into a legitimate profession until the late 1800s. As time went on it spawned numerous other profession, Counseling Psychology being one of them (Landrum). Some of the most prominent Psychologist in the field such as Freud, Erikson, and Witmer, utilized techniques, most notably †Talk Therapy†, which lead to the formation of the counseling profession (The historyRead MoreCounseling: Mental Health Counselor1320 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿U03A1_ COUNSELING SP ECIALIZATIONS AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAMS_ARezendes Resilience, an Evolving Concept: A Review of Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Research Resilience, an Evolving Concept: A Review of Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Research Abstract In this paper, I will discuss the history of counseling; specifically how school counseling and mental health counseling came to be. I will also examine the key philosophies of the counseling profession including, wellness, resilience, andRead MoreSocial Work in the Justice System Essay2769 Words   |  12 Pagescollaboration with the criminal justice system escaping widespread notice as well as the roles played in the judicial court systems. This paper takes a look at the point and the many purposes of forensic social work. Covering their role in multidisciplinary mitigation teams and collaboration between social workers and lawyers in criminal defense also the type service social work practitioners provide to inmate populations; the active involvement in an inmate’s daily life both during their sentence as wellRead MoreThe Drug Of Drug Addiction2146 Words   |  9 Pageshave evolved to specialize in different demographics in order to meet the needs of a community. Though t he majority of drug courts in the United States are for adult offenders, certain specializations are becoming more common as well. Veterans’ Courts use the drug court model and integrate mental health counseling to promote sobriety among veterans and some active duty service members involved in the justice system. Additionally, there are specific Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) courts, which useRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand Moods 97 Personality and Values 131 Perception and Individual Decision Making 165 Motivation Concepts 201 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 239 3 The Group 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Foundations of Group Behavior 271 Understanding Work Teams 307 Communication 335 Leadership 367 Power and Politics 411 Conflict and Negotiation 445 Foundations of Organization Structure 479 v vi BRIEF CONTENTS 4 The Organization System 16 Organizational Culture 511 17 Human Resource PoliciesRead MoreMastering Graduate Studies 1e32499 Words   |  130 Pages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methods of Effective Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communicating in Forums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communicating in Teams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classroom Etiquette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Read MoreManagement Control Systems Pdf115000 Words   |  460 PagesOpportunities for Improvement, Reality Check, Identify Outdated Strategies, Increase Management’s Ability to Address Concerns, Enhances Teamwork, Increase Commitment to Change – Limitations of Audit – Timing of an Audit – Audit Process: Staffing the Audit Team, Creating an Audit Project Plan, Laying the Ground Work for the Audit, Analyzing Audit Results, Sharing Audit Results, Writing Audit Reports, Dealing with Resistance to Audit Recommendations, Building an Ongoing Audit Program – Audit Tools and Techniques:

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ethnography on Fishing free essay sample

After an analysis of the sport of fishing, I have learned a lot about its discourse community and how people are involved in the sport today, and how the sport has effected the world today. My research started with the interpretation of several books related to the discourse community, which brought the attention of new information about professional fishing to the forefront of my research of the everyday life of the discourse community members. The sport of fishing has a wide variety of the type of members that represent the community, such as new members, or members that are not as serious as a professional fisherman, but anyone can join the discourse as an up and coming member at anytime, especially little kids. To become apart of this discourse all you really need to do is have the desire to go fishing, which a lot of people use as a relaxation tool for their life. This discourse community was founded out of the need of a food supply, and the need to survive, But since then there has been many advancement in the fishing world, technology has taught people how to catch fish more efficiently. One of the main contributing factors to this is the ability to use cell phones and GPS to guide Fishermen to where they believe they can catch fish, and the ability for hundreds to thousands of Anglers (members of the fishing discourse) to communicate and share relevant information on new ideas and places to fish using the internet/ internet forums. There is much more to being a fisherman than just having good fishing skills. Having a positive attitude, patience, commitment, respect, and integrity are also what makes a fisherman into an Angler. An Angler would be defined as someone that has been a member of the discourse community for an extended period of time, and have the ability to show proficiencies in the ability to fish. Fishing has a fair amount of lexis in its community, there are many different ways to tie a knot or there are many different types of bait you can use as well such as different live bait or artificial lures. Live bait is beneficial and usually considered easier to catch fish with, different types of live bait would be worms(night-crawlers), shrimp, minnows, and even grasshoppers or crickets. Some Anglers may enjoy more of a challenge by using artificial lures to try and catch a fish. Artificial lures are much different than that of live bait because you must use your fishing pole to â€Å"work† the lure so fish look at it and think it is still alive. There are also many different types that are designed to look like different bait fish, so you can use the correct one for the specific fish you are trying to catch. Some of the many types of artificial lures include jigs, spinners, spoons, which are mostly metal and made to look flashy, and dressed up with some type of feathers, then theirs the Soft plastic lures. Soft plastic lures are mostly used for bass fishing, and they are made by pouring liquid plastic into a mold and adding various scents and color dyes to appeal more to the fish. They are made to look like several bait animals, such as small bait fish, worms, crawfish, lizards, frogs, and other critters. In Leeson, Ted. â€Å"The big Finish† Field Stream 116. 5 (2011): 58-62. ebsco. Web. 23 October 2013, the Author, Ted makes it apparent and shows the type of language a fisherman, or Angler, would use in communicating with other members in the discourse. Learning how to choose different baits and lures is a big part if fishing, it takes patience, commitment, and perseverance to learn the different aspects of the fishing world, Anglers must also be willing to accept defeat that on some days you wont catch any fish, this is what turns most people away because they do not have the commitment to keep trying, as said by Rob Newell in â€Å"Defining a Professional Bass Angler†. The fact that Anglers have to be committed to catch fish and return to try to do so is what I believe makes fishing into a sport, which provides a great opportunity to challenge yourself to catch a bigger fish each time. Members of the discourse community could run into some conflicts within the community. The conflicts could arise over a debate on whos more knowledgeable about the sport threw the showmanship of using lexis of the discourse, or boasting of catching the biggest fish. Some conflicts early anglers could arise would be to decide on a good location to try to catch fish. This can be very frustrating as a newcomer into the discourse, because they may not have the opportunity to learn how to analyze a location and decide if its a fruitful spot to fish. As discussed by Nick. Types Of Fishing Lures. Types of Fishing Lures. N. p. , 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. Conflicts are frustrating to overcome for a newcomer in a discourse community. From personal experience in this discourse, there has been several times where you feel like giving up because you haven’t caught a single fish all day, and you are tired and sunburned from fishing, but you have to persevere and commit yourself to catching a fish, if you are dedicated enough, you will be rewarded with patience and hopefully, some fish. These difficulty’s are very apparent when young kids are newcomers into the discourse community, whether it be because father wants his son to go fishing with him, or if you and some of your pals wanted to go and try to catch a fish like you have seen people do in the movies, the fact is that young kids and children usually do not have the capacity to be committed and patient with catching a fish, so usually they tire out and lose interest quickly. This is when the discourse community can become a great money maker and provide people with a great fishing experience. If a angler decides he would like to change his hobby into a career, they can become a Guide, otherwise known as a charter fisherman or a fishing guide. As a fishing guide he would provide all the necessary items for the fishing trip needed for that day for a nominal fee and ask you to meet him promptly at a time of his or your choosing to begin the day of fishing. The fishing guide would then take you to several of his â€Å"hot spots† or the places he knows where and how to catch fish, to see if you can reel some in that day. Guides have to be very knowledgeable in the field of fishing and they have to be able to know the area they are fishing in. A fishing guide would be considered the â€Å"old-timers† of the discourse, but even most would be considered an expert in the community, especially for the personal community that the guide may live around. Doing this makes for a great way to turn a profit, but only if you have the ability to find and catch fish almost every time you charter a guide trip, otherwise people could become angry and inpatient, which in turn could cause conflicts to arise within the community, and if those conflicts did arise, they would be hurting the Fishing Guides business because if he doesn’t catch fish, other people will spread the information around that he isn’t such a good guide, which would cause people to lose trust in your promise to catch fish, ultimately losing business. Another path and Angler could take to make into a career would be to become a professional bass fisherman who would compete in tournaments and competitions for fishing for specifically bass. Anglers who choose this path of the discourse are the masters of fishing, a professional bass fisherman would describe themselves as having a positive attitude, credibility, commitment, respect, and integrity. A professional fisherman always has a positive attitude even during or after a bad or frustrating day on the water, they will always have emotional maturity after a bad day and never quit. A professional fisherman will always have a high level of commitment and never quit even if they are falling behind in a season of tournaments of competitions. A professional Angler will always have respect for the sport and the others in the sport. They will always respect the ones they are competing against in a tournament. Newell, Rob. Defining a Professional Bass Angler. FLW Bass Tournament Fishing News, Results, Videos, Tips, and Photos. N. p. , 1 May 2001. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. Mr. Newell described the commitment with great detail and emotion, his writing showed his genuine love for the sport and how the values of fishing can help people become better at everything they do, and that he is proof that it can teach you to believe in yourself and allow you to enjoy a relaxing, fun, and challenging sport. Some non-members of the discourse community continue to challenge the fishing community, with accusations that fishing cannot be considered a sport, because sports have athletes. Using the information documented in Martin, Andrew. Are Professional Bass Anglers REALLY Athletes. Blogger. N. p. , n. d. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. it has allowed me to discover some of the reason as of what the people that are trying to argue if fishing should be considered a sport or not. Someone could say that they are not athletes, but an athlete can be described by Websters Dictionary by a â€Å"person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina†. That said, that is a broad definition but fisherman would still fall under this description. A true professional angler or someone who would be an expert in the sport has to have the ability, and the agility to make snap mental decisions in controlling a artificial lure to catch a fish, they also need a fair amount of strength to be able to be fishing for 4 or 5 days at a time, possibly in the deep sea, where your line would be casting down a hundred feet or more! Fishing is a disciplined practice that can take years to learn and master, just as another sport, or even hobbies. So, would you consider fishing a sport? The competition between men alone attracts the allure for organized competition and leader board status. In the end, through my extensive research I have learned a lot about this discourse community that I had already been a member of. Such as teaching me the more subtle differences in live bait and artificial bait, such as shrimp or minnows or artificial lures like jigs or spinners. My research also lead me to become more informed on the professional side of the discourse community and the more sporting side, as previously my membership in the discourse was to pursue fishing as a relaxing pastime to enjoy the warm ocean breeze. The professional side of the community intrigued me because its interesting the many different aspects and styles people can use in the quest to catch the biggest and baddest fish to win a competition, I applaud them for the commitment to set and break personal records, which in turn helps you become a better man or women in your personal life because commitment is a valuable lesson and is one of the many things fishing can teach you

Sunday, April 19, 2020


The advent of mobile devices and their popularity among consumers in the electronics market has led to development of ultra low voltage microcontrollers. These devices are intended to increase efficiency of the mobile devices and extend the life of their power supply. This is particularly important since most mobile devices are designed to use portable batteries (Freescale, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Low-Power Microcontrollers specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Power supply from portable batteries has a significantly low voltage component, which affects the efficiency of the supply and the ability of the devices to adapt to the capabilities of the batteries. Mobile battery energy storage and management has become an important issue, particularly due to the increased use of mobile devices for applications that were previously reserved for larger computers (Freescale, 2009). Dynamic voltage scaling is a n ew technology that has facilitated the development of ultra-low power microcontrollers. It is therefore necessary to use ultra-low power microcontrollers for devices relying on battery power in order to extend battery life and efficiency. There are various types of microcontrollers made for specific components of mobile devices. One particular type of ultra-low power microcontroller is the MSP430 class of microcontrollers introduced to the market by Texas Instruments. This microcontroller is specifically designed for power supply control in portable measuring instruments. Its microprocessor is able to operate on 16-bit words, and it is a remarkably powerful processor for a measuring device. The ability of the microcontroller to switch from low power and adapt to high power demands of certain processes within measuring instruments is one of its unique features. In addition, this class of ultra-low power microcontrollers is flexible since it has a dozen analog-to-digital converters an d a complementary set of digital-to-analogue converters. This makes it easy to interface the microcontroller with various peripheral devices such as sensors. The microcontroller features sixty four input/output pins, which are sufficient for most applications in the targeted instruments. MSP430 microcontrollers are aimed at providing a high standard of computing capabilities while consuming a reasonably small amount of power. However, due to the numerous input/output pins, many registers and converters, and a powerful microprocessor, these microcontrollers have an average performance in power conservation.Advertising Looking for essay on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another company, Microchip, is offering a 16-bit option in PIC24F16KL402 class of microcontrollers. These microcontrollers are designed to provide better computing abilities than other microcontrollers with a lower limit for digital word proces sing. In addition, Microchip’s microcontroller is designed for low power consumption devices running on limited power sources. Microchip has ensured that there is power conservation while maintaining performance standards by including 16-bit capabilities in its package. This effort is reflected in dsPICÂ ® microcontroller meant for processing digital signals. The particular microcontroller uses modified Harvard design Architecture featuring several improvements in the functions of the microcontroller. A wide range of oscillators is provided for various applications. Four different configurations for oscillators are used depending on the intended application for the microcontroller. The microcontroller offered by microchip may not be as equipped as the one manufactured by Texas instruments. However, the microcontroller offers 16-bit computing capabilities with significantly low power consumption. This chip has a wide variety of applications. Atmel Corporation has also endeavo red to produce an ultra-low power microcontroller. ATmega48/88/168 produced by Atmel Corporation is an AVR microcontroller designed for low power consumption. RISC design architecture has been used in this microcontroller. CMOS semiconductor technology has been extensively applied in its manufacture. However, this microcontroller has 8-bit processing capabilities only. To compensate for this, the microcontroller is able to handle complex data in one cycle even with the limited 8-bit capacity. This microprocessor has considerable speed capabilities that enable it to execute a large number of instructions using a small amount of power. ARM Holdings is another company that is progressively becoming a significant player in the manufacture of modern ultra-low power microcontrollers. The company has developed a completely new design for ultra-low power microcontrollers due to the incorporation of new microprocessor technology.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Low-Pow er Microcontrollers specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The LPC2114/2124 microcontroller built using ARM Holdings’ TDNI-s microprocessor features less transistors in the processing unit (NPX, 2011). This design feature limits the amount of the power consumed by the microprocessor unit, and results in overall conservation of energy. In addition to low power consumption, the microcontroller has a solid state memory which facilitates high-speed data transfer. The data transfer function has been enhanced by use of a 128-bit data bus. One unique feature of the microcontroller is that it is a 16 bit microcontroller with an accelerator that allows it to process larger 32-bit words (NPX, 2011). This makes the microcontroller technologically advanced that those manufactured by Microchip, Atmel Corporation and Texas Instruments. Furthermore, the ARM microcontroller has a sixty-four-pin input/output interface and several analog-to-digital co nverters. In addition, it has complementary digital-to-analog converters for flexible application. Due to the capabilities of LPC2114/2124 microcontroller, it is often used in medical instruments and industrial processes (NPX, 2011). Its 32-bit capabilities make it suitable for heavier applications compared to microcontrollers by Microchip, Atmel Corporation and Texas Instruments. Ultra low power microcontrollers are becoming important in electronics technology. This is due to the increasing need for compact electronic instruments and mobile communication devices (Freescale, 2009). As mobile devices assume tasks that were traditionally reserved for powerful conventional computers, their demand for more power is being countered by employment of ultra-low power microcontrollers in the electronics assemblies. References Freescale, S. (2009, May 6). Freescale Low-Power microcontroller solutions. Energy efficient solutions. Retrieved from hure/BRLWPWR.pdfAdvertising Looking for essay on other technology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More NPX, N. (2011, June 10). Single-chip 16/32-bit microcontrollers;. Retrieved from This essay on Low-Power Microcontrollers was written and submitted by user Fernando Zamora to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Han Chinese and Starbucks Essay

Han Chinese and Starbucks Essay Han Chinese and Starbucks Essay Case Study Chapter 4 Starbucks 1) In my opinion, the key factors Starbucks had to consider before opening shop in China were all based on one thing; Starbucks had to determine why the Chinese would go to a cafà ©. Since the majority of China’s population is tea drinkers, they had to figure out what they could do to bring tea drinkers into a coffee shop. One of these factors is the fact that Starbucks has determined its target market to be the young people in china coined â€Å"little emperors†. They appeal to these young people and their desire for change and sophistication. Another factor Starbucks uses to its advantage is the fact that the Chinese want a comfortable place outside of their small dwellings where they can meet with family and friends. Starbucks capitalized on this by creating larger meeting areas than their North American stores. They made these areas comfortable and cool places for the people to get together and have a latte. Another important factor is that Starbucks has m ore food items on their menu such as duck sandwiches, and green tea cheesecake. Starbucks is not just a drink in china it is a place to meet and look modern. 2) China is a dictatorship so change to how a business operates can happen overnight. One of the key things Starbucks had to do to bring their brand to China was they had to find a Chinese partner that would understand the political and business markets in China. They did this by authorizing local companies to use their brand and the partnering with them. Starbucks started small in China buy only receiving royalties on the licenses, but in 2006 they started buying up shares so they could have more control over their company. China entering the World Trade Agreement in 2001 made buying out their partners and going at the business on their own a lot easier. 3) The Demographic Factor that was

Thursday, February 27, 2020

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources and International Essay

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources and International Trade Law - Essay Example The main objective of the treaty is to conserve and sustainably use plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. In addition, there must be fair and equitable sharing of the benefits that arise in the use of plant genetic resources (Curci 3). Achieving the main objectives of the treaty has several implications on the intellectual property rights. In addition, the treaty has several implications on the conservation of genetic resources. The general regime on access to genetic resources and benefits sharing are some of the provisions in the treaty that are relevant to the intellectual property rights. In the treaty, bilateral negotiations were made between genetic provider countries and other user countries. According to Biber-Klemn and Cottier (217), the main elements of the treaty include: the affirmation of the sovereign rights of the provider states over their genetic resources; the creation of environmentally friendly genetic resources that can bring benefits to user countries; and the access to a country’s genetic resources by other nations being subject to Prior Informed Consent (PIC). The access to and the transfer of genetic resources technology in the treaty states that countries engaging in the contract must cooperate subject to national legislation and international law (Lewinski 69). This is to ensure that such intellectual property rights are supportive and do not go against the established objectives of the treaty, according to Lewinski. The rights of farmers are also included in the treaty, particularly Article 9 of the treaty. Article 9 recognizes the contribution of local traditional communities and farmers to the conservation and development of plant genetic resources for the purpose of food and agriculture production. In addition, the article places the responsibility for the realization of the rights of farmers by the national governments. The contracting parties should ensure that there is protection and promotion of